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Neoadjuvant Short-Course Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer: Trends and Controversies

Digestif - Publié le 14/05/2020 par Ilfad Blazevic

Purpose of Review For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, neoadjuvant hypofractionated short-course radiation remains an underutilized regimen in the USA. We review the current clinical literature highlighting the relative merits of short-course radiation, along with modern neoadjuvant strategies that incorporate its use. Recent Findings As compared to long-course chemoradiation with delayed surgery, short-course radiation with early surgery offers similar oncologic efficacy for locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Delaying surgery after short-course radiation decreases post-operative complications as compared to early surgery and improves tumor downstaging. Delaying surgery also offers the opportunity to administer neoadjuvant systemic therapy, which may help increase local-regional tumor response and potentially decrease distant relapse rates, the latter a persisting problem in rectal cancer treatment. Summary Short-course radiation, either with immediate or with delayed surgery, represents an appealing treatment alternative to long-course chemoradiation for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Source : Current oncology reports 2018